Stem cells in the skeletal muscle promote the regeneration of severe nerve peripheral injury

August 15, 2014 by · Leave a Comment 

A research group at the muscle physiology and cell biology unit, the Tokai University School of Medicine, Japan, led by Dr. Tetsuro Tamaki, have developed the stem cell isolation method from the skeletal muscle, termed skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells (Sk-MSCs), which can differentiate into Schwann and perineurial/endoneurial cells, and vascular relating pericytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the damaged peripheral nerve niche. Application of the Sk-MSCs in the bridging conduit of the long nerve gap injury resulted favorable axonal regeneration showing superior effects than healthy nerve autograft, which have been considered gold standard therapy. This also means that the sacrifice of healthy nerves, and the loss of related functions does not need.

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Stem cell therapy for central nerve system injuries: Glial cells hold the key

August 13, 2014 by · Leave a Comment 

Mammalian adult central nerve system (CNS) injuries are devastating because of the intrinsic difficulties for effective neuronal regeneration. The greatest problem to be overcome for CNS recovery is the poor regeneration of neurons and myelin-forming cells, oligodendrocytes. Endogenous neural progenitors and transplanted exogenous neuronal stem cells can be the source for neuronal regeneration. However, because of the harsh local microenvironment, they usually have very low efficacy for functional neural regeneration which cannot compensate for the loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes. Glial cells (including astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes and NG2 glia) are the majority of cells in CNS that provide support and protection for neurons. Inside the local microenvironment, glial cells largely influence local and transplanted neural stem cells survival and fates. This review critically analyzes current finding of the roles of glial cells in CNS regeneration, and highlights strategies for regulating glial cells’ behavior to create a permissive microenvironment for neuronal stem cells. The Perspectives paper published in Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 9, No. 13, 2014).

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Stem cell type resists chemotherapy drug

July 5, 2014 by · Leave a Comment 

A new study shows that adipose-derived human stem cells, which can become vital tissues such as bone, may be highly resistant to the common chemotherapy drug methotrexate (MTX). The preliminary finding from lab testing may prove significant because MTX causes bone tissue damage in many patients.

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Nuclear transfer achieved for first time to reprogram adult patient cells into stem cells

May 5, 2014 by · Leave a Comment 

The capacity to reprogram adult patient cells into pluripotent, embryonic-like, stem cells by nuclear transfer has been reported as a breakthrough by scientists from the US and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

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Induced pluripotent stem cells reveal differences between humans and great apes

October 23, 2013 by · Leave a Comment 

Researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have, for the first time, taken chimpanzee and bonobo skin cells and turned them into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a type of cell that has the ability to form any other cell or tissue in the body.

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Youthful stem cells from bone can heal the heart, Temple scientists report

September 5, 2013 by · Leave a Comment 

Many people who survive a heart attack find themselves back in the hospital with a failing heart just years later. And the outcome often is unfavorable, owing to limited treatment options. But scientists at Temple University School of Medicine’s Cardiovascular Research Center (CVRC) recently found hope in an unlikely source – stem cells in cortical, or compact, bone. In a new study, they show that when it comes to the regeneration of heart tissue, these novel bone-derived cells do a better job than the heart’s own stem cells.

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A ginkgo biloba extract promotes proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells

July 23, 2013 by · Leave a Comment 

Neural stem cells proliferate in the subventricular zone and hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mammals. However, the number of endogenous neural stem cells is insufficient to prevent cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injuries such as vascular dementia, so it is important to stimulate endogenous neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. The ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 effectively and safely treats memory loss and cognitive impairments in patients with senile dementia. Prof. Yuliang Wang and team from Weifang Medical University observed the effects of EGb761 on proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of rats with vascular dementia. Researchers found that the ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 promoted and prolonged the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus of rats with vascular dementia. The cells continued to proliferate at 4 months. EGb761 also significantly improved learning and memory in rats with vascular dementia. These findings which were published in the Neural Regeneration Research (Vol. 8, No. 18, 2013) provide a new idea and approach to further explore the induced proliferation of neural stem cells in situ in the treatment of vascular dementia.

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IUPUI stem cell research could expand clinical use of regenerative human cells

March 19, 2013 by · Leave a Comment 

Research led by a biology professor in the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has uncovered a method to produce retinal cells from regenerative human stem cells without the use of animal products, proteins or other foreign substances, which historically have limited the application of stem cells to treat disease and other human developmental disorders.

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Solving stem cell mysteries

October 27, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

The ability of embryonic stem cells to differentiate into different types of cells with different functions is regulated and maintained by a complex series of chemical interactions, which are not well understood. Learning more about this process could prove useful for stem cell-based therapies down the road. New research from a team led by Carnegie’s Yixian Zheng zeroes in on the process by which stem cells maintain their proper undifferentiated state. Their results are published in CellOctober 26.

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New method generates cardiac muscle patches from stem cells

June 19, 2012 by · Leave a Comment 

A cutting-edge method developed at the University of Michigan Center for Arrhythmia Research successfully uses stem cells to create heart cells capable of mimicking the heart’s crucial squeezing action.

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